Traditional Drives

Paths, Patios, Block Paving, Steps & Walls


Mark Wilson


Patrick and his team worked extremely hard throughout the installation of the new drive. On initial contact they was able to start within 3 days and had completed the drive also within 3 days, considering the shape and size of the drive this was excellent. No mess was left at the end of each day and the work force were always polite and complimented by the neighbours. I would highly recommend the services of Traditional Drives and would employ them for future work.


Mark Wilson



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шины и диски на авто

Ежегодно, у владельцев собственных автомобилей появляется проблема: колёса, диски и шины. Это связанно с тем, что зимой используются одни покрышки, а летом принято «переобувать» транспортное средство в другие колёса. Сейчас, всё чаще потребители встречаются с плохими товарами, качество которых настолько низкое, что приводит к авариям. Именно поэтому, ищя информацию про шины и диски на авто в интернете, важно знать, кому можно доверить, а кому нельзя. В нашем интернет-магазине предлагается огромное количество новинок, от разных компаний. Они объединяются тем, что качество этих изделий проверено временем и множеством автолюбителей, которые этим уже пользовались. Благодаря этому, у потребителя не возникнет проблем с выбором шин, однако, если это случается и информации не достаёт, можно всегда пообщаться с сотрудниками нашей фирмы. Говоря о дисках, здесь иногда с выбором возникает ещё больше вопросов, чем с покрышками. Из чего самые лучшие варианты? Как определиться с размером? Это тревожит тех, кто первый раз в жизни осуществляет такое приобретение. Хорошим дополнением будет шанс приобрести диски с гарантией, что гарантирует качество. Просмотрев все варианты, Вы обязательно сможете найти то, что лучше всего подходит.

Boiler Repairs Penge, Anerley, SE20, Boiler Breakdown Emergency Service

A boiler is a closed vessel where drinking water or other fluid is heated. The fluid will not boil. (In North America, the term "furnace" is generally used if the purpose is not to boil the liquid.) The heated or vaporized fluid exits the boiler for use in a variety of heating or processes applications,[1][2] including drinking water heating, central heating, boiler-based power generation, food preparation, and sanitation. Materials The pressure vessel of the boiler is usually manufactured from steel (or alloy steel), or of wrought iron historically. Stainless steel, especially of the austenitic types, is not used in wetted parts of boilers credited to corrosion and stress corrosion breaking.[3] However, ferritic stainless is often used in superheater sections that won't be exposed to boiling drinking water, and electrically heated stainless shell boilers are allowed under the Western "Pressure Equipment Directive" for creation of steam for sterilizers and disinfectors.[4] [url=][/url] In live steam models, copper or brass is often used since it is easier fabricated in smaller size boilers. Historically, copper was often used for fireboxes (particularly for steam locomotives), due to its better formability and higher thermal conductivity; however, in more recent times, the high price of copper often makes this an uneconomic choice and cheaper substitutes (such as steel) are used instead. For much of the Victorian "age group of vapor", the only material used for boilermaking was the best grade of wrought iron, with assembly by rivetting. This iron was obtained from specialist ironworks, such as at Cleator Moor (UK), noted for the high quality of their rolled plate and its suitability for high-reliability use in critical applications, such as high-pressure boilers. In the 20th century, design practice transferred towards the utilization of steel instead, which is more powerful and cheaper, with welded construction, which is quicker and requires less labour. It ought to be mentioned, however, that wrought iron boilers corrode much slower than their modern-day metal counterparts, and are less susceptible to localized stress-corrosion and pitting. This makes the longevity of older wrought-iron boilers much more advanced than those of welded metal boilers. Cast iron might be utilized for the heating system vessel of home drinking water heaters. Although such heaters are usually termed "boilers" in some countries, their purpose will be to produce warm water, not steam, and they also run at low pressure and stay away from boiling. The brittleness of cast iron helps it be impractical for high-pressure steam boilers. Boiler Repairs Penge, Anerley, SE20, Boiler Breakdown Emergency Service [url=]Show more![/url] Energy The foundation of heat for a boiler is combustion of any of several fuels, such as wood, coal, oil, or natural gas. Electric vapor boilers use resistance- or immersion-type heating elements. Nuclear fission is also used as a heat source for generating steam, either directly (BWR) or, generally, in specialised warmth exchangers called "vapor generators" (PWR). Heat recovery vapor generators (HRSGs) use heat rejected from other processes such as gas turbine. Boiler efficiency there are two solutions to measure the boiler efficiency 1) direct method 2) indirect method Immediate method -immediate method of boiler efficiency test is more usable or more common boiler efficiency =Q*((Hg-Hf)/q)*(GCV *100 ) Q =Total vapor movement Hg= Enthalpy of saturated vapor in k cal/kg Hf =Enthalpy of feed drinking water in kcal/kg q= level of energy use in kg/hr GCV =gross calorific value in kcal/kg like pet coke (8200 kcal/KG) indirect method -to measure the boiler efficiency in indirect method, we need a subsequent parameter like Ultimate analysis of fuel (H2,S2,S,C moisture constraint, ash constraint) percentage of O2 or CO2 at flue gas flue gas temperature at outlet ambient temperature in deg c and humidity of air in kg/kg GCV of gasoline in kcal/kg ash percentage in combustible fuel GCV of ash in kcal/kg Configurations Boilers can be classified in to the following configurations: Container boiler or Haycock boiler/Haystack boiler: a primitive "kettle" where a fire heats a partially filled drinking water pot from below. 18th century Haycock boilers generally produced and stored large quantities of very low-pressure vapor, often hardly above that of the atmosphere. These could burn off wood or most often, coal. Efficiency was very low. Flued boiler with one or two large flues-an early forerunner or type of fire-tube boiler. Diagram of a fire-tube boiler Fire-tube boiler: Here, water partially fills a boiler barrel with a little volume still left above to accommodate the vapor (vapor space). This is the type of boiler used in nearly all steam locomotives. Heat source is in the furnace or firebox that needs to be held permanently surrounded by the water in order to keep up the temperatures of the heating system surface below the boiling point. The furnace can be situated at one end of a fire-tube which lengthens the path of the hot gases, thus augmenting the heating surface which can be further increased by causing the gases invert direction through a second parallel pipe or a lot of money of multiple tubes (two-pass or come back flue boiler); additionally the gases may be taken along the sides and then under the boiler through flues (3-move boiler). In case there is a locomotive-type boiler, a boiler barrel expands from the firebox and the hot gases pass through a lot of money of fire tubes inside the barrel which greatly increases the heating system surface in comparison to a single tube and further increases heat transfer. Fire-tube boilers usually have a comparatively low rate of steam production, but high steam storage capacity. Fire-tube boilers burn solid fuels mostly, but are easily flexible to people of the liquid or gas variety. Diagram of the water-tube boiler. Water-tube boiler: In this type, tubes filled with drinking water are arranged inside a furnace in a genuine quantity of possible configurations. Usually the water tubes connect large drums, the lower ones containing water and top of the ones water and steam; in other instances, such as a mono-tube boiler, water is circulated by a pump through a succession of coils. This kind generally gives high steam creation rates, but less storage space capacity than the above. Water tube boilers can be made to exploit any high temperature source and tend to be preferred in high-pressure applications since the high-pressure drinking water/vapor is contained within small diameter pipes which can withstand the pressure with a thinner wall structure. Flash boiler: A flash boiler is a specialized type of water-tube boiler where tubes are close together and drinking water is pumped through them. A flash boiler differs from the type of mono-tube vapor generator in which the tube is permanently filled up with water. Super fast boiler, the tube is held so hot that water give food to is quickly flashed into steam and superheated. Flash boilers experienced some use in automobiles in the 19th century and this use continued into the early 20th century. . 1950s design vapor locomotive boiler, from a Victorian Railways J class Fire-tube boiler with Water-tube firebox. Sometimes both above types have been combined in the following manner: the firebox consists of an assembly of water tubes, called thermic siphons. The gases go through a conventional firetube boiler then. Water-tube fireboxes were installed in many Hungarian locomotives,[citation needed] but have fulfilled with little success far away. Sectional boiler. Within a cast iron sectional boiler, sometimes called a "pork chop boiler" the water is included inside cast iron sections.[citation needed] These sections are assembled on site to make the finished boiler. Safety See also: Boiler explosion To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations such as the American Society of Mechanical Technicians (ASME) develop specifications and regulation codes. For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a standard providing a wide range of guidelines and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with basic safety, design and security standards.[5] Historically, boilers were a source of many serious injuries and property destruction as a consequence to poorly understood engineering principles. Thin and brittle metal shells can rupture, while welded or riveted seams could start poorly, leading to a violent eruption of the pressurized vapor. When drinking water is changed into vapor it expands to over 1,000 times its original volume and moves down steam pipes at over 100 kilometres each hour. Because of this, vapor is a superb way of moving energy and temperature around a site from a central boiler house to where it is necessary, but with no right boiler give food to water treatment, a steam-raising plant will suffer from level corrosion and formation. At best, this raises energy costs and can lead to poor quality vapor, reduced efficiency, shorter vegetation and unreliable procedure. At worst, it can result in catastrophic reduction and failure of life. Collapsed or dislodged boiler tubes can also squirt scalding-hot steam and smoke from the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who insert the coal into the open fire chamber. Extremely large boilers providing a huge selection of horsepower to use factories can potentially demolish entire buildings.[6] A boiler which has a loss of feed water and is permitted to boil dry can be extremely dangerous. If supply drinking water is sent into the empty boiler then, the tiny cascade of incoming water instantly boils on contact with the superheated metal shell and leads to a violent explosion that can't be controlled even by safety vapor valves. Draining of the boiler can also happen if a leak occurs in the vapor source lines that is larger than the make-up water supply could replace. The Hartford Loop was created in 1919 by the Hartford Steam Boiler and INSURANCE PROVIDER as a method to help prevent this problem from taking place, and therefore reduce their insurance promises.[7][8] Superheated steam boiler A superheated boiler on the steam locomotive. Main article: Superheater Most boilers produce vapor to be utilized at saturation heat range; that is, saturated steam. Superheated steam boilers vaporize the water and further heat the steam in a superheater then. This provides vapor at higher temperature, but can decrease the overall thermal efficiency of the vapor generating flower because the bigger steam heat takes a higher flue gas exhaust temperature.[citation needed] There are several ways to circumvent this problem, by providing an economizer that heats the feed drinking water typically, a combustion air heater in the hot flue gas exhaust path, or both. There are benefits to superheated vapor that may, and will often, increase overall efficiency of both steam generation and its utilization: increases in input heat range to a turbine should outweigh any cost in additional boiler problem and expense. There may be practical limitations in using moist vapor also, as entrained condensation droplets will damage turbine blades. Superheated steam presents unique safety concerns because, if any operational system component fails and allows steam to escape, the high pressure and temperature can cause serious, instantaneous harm to anyone in its path. Since the escaping steam will be completely superheated vapor, detection can be difficult, although the intense heat and sound from such a leak indicates its presence clearly. Superheater procedure is similar to that of the coils on an air conditioning unit, although for a different purpose. The vapor piping is directed through the flue gas path in the boiler furnace. The temp in this field is normally between 1,300 and 1,600 °C (2,372 and 2,912 °F). Some superheaters are glowing type; that is, they absorb high temperature by radiation. Others are convection type, absorbing heat from a fluid. Some are a combination of the two types. Through either method, the extreme heat in the flue gas route will also heat the superheater steam piping and the steam within. While the temperature of the vapor in the superheater increases, the pressure of the vapor will not and the pressure remains exactly like that of the boiler.[9] Virtually all steam superheater system designs remove droplets entrained in the steam to prevent harm to the turbine blading and associated piping. Supercritical steam generator Boiler for a power place. Main article: Supercritical steam generator Supercritical steam generators are frequently used for the production of energy. They operate at supercritical pressure. In contrast to a "subcritical boiler", a supercritical vapor generator operates at such a higher pressure (over 3,200 psi or 22 MPa) that the physical turbulence that characterizes boiling ceases to occur; the fluid is liquid nor gas but a super-critical fluid neither. There is no generation of steam bubbles within the water, because the pressure is above the critical pressure point at which steam bubbles can form. As the liquid expands through the turbine stages, its thermodynamic state drops below the critical point as it can work turning the turbine which changes the power generator from which power is ultimately extracted. The liquid at that point may be a mixture of vapor and liquid droplets as it goes by in to the condenser. This results in less fuel use and therefore less greenhouse gas production slightly. The word "boiler" should not be used for a supercritical pressure steam generator, as no "boiling" occurs in this device. Boiler Repairs Penge, Anerley, SE20, Boiler Breakdown Emergency Service [url=]More info>>>[/url] Accessories Boiler accessories and fittings Pressuretrols to regulate the steam pressure in the boiler. Boilers generally have two or three 3 pressuretrols: a manual-reset pressuretrol, which functions as a protection by setting the upper limit of steam pressure, the operating pressuretrol, which settings when the boiler fires to keep pressure, as well as for boilers outfitted with a modulating burner, a modulating pressuretrol which controls the amount of fire. Security valve: It is used to alleviate pressure and prevent possible explosion of the boiler. Water level indicators: They show the operator the amount of liquid in the boiler, known as a view glass also, water measure or water column. Bottom blowdown valves: They offer a means for removing solid particulates that condense and rest on underneath of a boiler. As the name suggests, this valve is located straight on underneath of the boiler usually, and is occasionally opened to use the pressure in the boiler to drive these particulates out. Constant blowdown valve: This enables a small level of water to escape continuously. Its purpose is to prevent water in the boiler becoming saturated with dissolved salts. Saturation would lead to foaming and cause drinking water droplets to be carried over with the vapor - an ailment known as priming. Blowdown is also often used to monitor the chemistry of the boiler water. Trycock: a kind of valve that is often use to manually check a liquid level in a tank. Most commonly found on a water boiler. Flash tank: High-pressure blowdown enters this vessel where in fact the steam can 'flash' safely and become used in a low-pressure system or be vented to atmosphere while the ambient pressure blowdown flows to drain. Automatic blowdown/constant heat recovery system: This system allows the boiler to blowdown only when makeup water is flowing to the boiler, thereby transferring the utmost amount of heat possible from the blowdown to the makeup water. No flash container is normally needed as the blowdown discharged is near to the heat range of the make-up water. Hand holes: They may be metal plates installed in openings in "header" to allow for inspections & installation of tubes and inspection of inner surfaces. Vapor drum internals, a series of display screen, scrubber & cans (cyclone separators). Low-water cutoff: It really is a mechanical means (usually a float change) that is utilized to turn off the burner or shut off gas to the boiler to avoid it from working once the water goes below a certain point. If a boiler is "dry-fired" (burned without water in it) it can cause rupture or catastrophic failure. Surface blowdown series: It provides a means for removing foam or other light-weight non-condensible substances that tend to float on top of the water inside the boiler. Circulating pump: It is designed to circulate drinking water back again to the boiler after it has expelled a few of its heat. Feedwater check valve or clack valve: A non-return stop valve in the feedwater range. This can be installed to the side of the boiler, just below the water level, or to the top of the boiler.[10] Top feed: With this design for feedwater injection, the water is fed to the very best of the boiler. This can reduce boiler exhaustion triggered by thermal stress. By spraying the feedwater over some trays the water is quickly heated which can reduce limescale. Desuperheater tubes or bundles: Some pipes or bundles of tubes in the water drum or the steam drum designed to cool superheated vapor, in order to supply auxiliary equipment that does not need, or may be damaged by, dry steam. Chemical injection line: A connection to add chemicals for controlling feedwater pH. Steam accessories Main vapor stop valve: Steam traps: Main vapor stop/check valve: It can be used on multiple boiler installations. Combustion accessories Gas oil system:gas oil heaters Gas system: Coal system: Soot blower Other essential items Pressure gauges: Feed pumps: Fusible plug: Inspectors test pressure measure attachment: Name dish: Registration dish:


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